Glossary

Albumin: A protein found in the blood that is mostly produced by the liver. Decreases in albumin levels can be an indication of advanced liver disease.

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT): A protein found in high concentrations in the liver. Elevated levels of ALT in the blood can be an indication of toxic hepatitis. The AST/ALT ratio is sometimes used in the differential diagnosis of liver disease (see AST below).

Artery: Any blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body.

Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST): A protein found in high concentrations in the liver.

Bilirubin: The major pigment of bile that is removed from the blood by the liver. When the liver is unable to remove bilirubin from the blood, bilirubin levels can rise and may indicate liver disease.

Catheter: A flexible, hollow tube used to deliver or withdraw fluids from the body.

Cirrhosis: A condition whereby the liver is scarred by continual damage and repair, as a result of damage through disease or conditions such as hepatitis or chronic alcohol abuse.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): A molecule found in a cell that carries genetic information.

Downstaging: The process of treating tumours to reduce the tumour size/number, with the goal of increasing a patient’s eligibility for surgery or liver transplant.

Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh supplying blood to the groin and lower extremities.

Fluoroscopy: An x-ray procedure that takes continuous pictures to evaluate moving structures within the body.

Hepatic mCRC: Metastatic colorectal cancer that has spread to the liver.

Hepatic Neoplasia: A type of liver cancer that has started in the liver.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A type of liver cancer which has started in the liver.

Humanitarian Use Device (HUD): A medical device that is available in the United States on the basis of established safety coupled with probable clinical benefit(s).

Infiltrative Tumor: A type of tumour that has spread from a single isolated location into the surrounding healthy tissue.

Metastasis: A tumour that results from the spread of tumour cells in one type of tissue to another.

Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC): Colorectal cancer that has metastasised to other areas of the body.

Micrometer: A unit of measure used to determine the length of an object. One micrometer is equal to one millionth of a meter (approximately 1/25000 of an inch).

Portal Vein Thrombosis (PVT): A blockage by a blood clot, of the portal vein, which brings blood to the liver.

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): A molecule that transfers information essential for protein synthesis from DNA.

Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT): The injection of micron-sized radioactive microspheres into the artery that supplies blood to the liver tumour. Also referred to as transarterial radioembolisation (TARE).

Transarterial Radioembolisation (TARE): The injection of micron-sized radioactive microspheres into the artery supplying blood to the liver tumour. Also referred to as selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT).

TheraSphere: A liver cancer treatment that is comprised of microscopic glass spheres containing radioactive yttrium-90.

TheraSphere™ Package Insert & Instructions for Use: Documents that describe the TheraSphere product, its indication, contraindications, precautions/warnings, adverse events and other important product-related information.

Upper Limit of Normal (ULN): The maximum value of a test result above which the result is considered abnormal.

Yttrium-90 (Y90): A radioactive element that emits energy in the form of beta radiation as it breaks down into its stable form, zirconium-90.

Zirconium-90 (90Zr): A stable element that is produced from the breakdown of yttrium-90.